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HOW NAMI-NEW JERSEY HAS CONVERSATIONS ON MENTAL HEALTH AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE! (714 hits)

For Immediate Release From NAMI-New Jersey!

(A Ten-Minute Read)



Domestic Violence or Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) can affect people's mental health and wellness. It can bring anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to survivors of abuse. Learn about keeping our mental health safe.

Please watch the video above: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hcAZhulkAr...


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Intimate Partner Violence: A Loop Of Abuse, Depression And Victimization

Intimate partner violence has been recognized as a serious public health issue. Exposure to violence contributes to the genesis of, and exacerbates, mental health conditions, and existing mental health problems increase vulnerability to partner violence, a loop that imprisons victims and perpetuates the abuse. A recently described phenomenon is when male violence against females occurs within intimate relationships during youth, and it is termed adolescent or teen dating violence. In this narrative review, factors associated with intimate partner violence and consequences of exposure of children to parental domestic violence are discussed, along with possible intensification of violence against women with the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and subsequent lockdown. Intervention programs with a multicomponent approach involving many health care settings and research have a pivotal role in developing additional strategies for addressing violence and to provide tailored interventions to victims. Prevention policy with a particular attention on healthy child and adolescent development is mandatory in the struggle against all forms of violence.

Core Tip: Intimate partner violence represents a serious public health issue. Exposure to violence contributes to the genesis of, and exacerbates, mental health conditions, and existing mental health problems increase vulnerability to partner violence. A recently described phenomenon is when male violence against females occurs within intimate relationships during youth, and it is termed adolescent or teen dating violence. Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is causing a tremendous impact on women's possible exposure to violence. Possible interventions against violence are discussed.

INTRODUCTION

Intimate partner violence is described as physical violence, s*xual violence, stalking, or psychological aggression by a current or former intimate partner. It represents a serious public health issue. It has been estimated that more than 30% of women in the United States have experienced intimate partner violence, and it represents the leading cause of homicide death for women. Prevalence is higher among young women (18 to 24 years of age), among racial and ethnic minority groups, and among people with mental and physical disabilities[1]. Psychological violence is estimated to be the most common subtype of intimate partner violence (compared to physical and s*xual violence) in the United States and Europe[2].

In women of reproductive age, intimate partner violence has been linked with poor reproductive health and poor s*xual health (unintended pregnancy and s*xually transmitted infections) and heightened risks of obstetrical and gynecologic complications (pregnancy-associated death,

preterm birth, low birth weight) and represents a risk factor for peripartum depression and substance abuse[1]. There are specific physical injuries in women that can be considered as indicators of intimate partner violence: Contusions, lacerations, and fractures (especially in the head, neck and face) and are frequently reported by patients as domestic accidents. Partner violence has been associated with many mental health consequences: Depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, suicidal behavior, alcohol or drug abuse, s*xual problems, problems with concentration, somatization, social, educational, or occupational difficulties, as well as feelings of blame and guilt or reproach. It is also linked to several and often disabling physical health problems (chronic pain, gastrointestinal problems, s*xually transmitted infections, traumatic brain injury, cardiovascular diseases).

Exposure to violence can contribute on one side to the genesis of psychopathological conditions or can exacerbate mental health conditions, but on the other side existing mental health problems can increase vulnerability and predisposition to partner violence.

It has been estimated that emotional violence is the most common form of intimate partner violence across all continents worldwide[3]. Factors associated with intimate partner violence originate from multiple levels: Individual, relationship, community, and societal level[4]. Subjects who are at greater risk of experiencing intimate partner violence more likely come from a lower education background and poorer socio-economic status (with difficulty of access to resources and greater acceptance towards violence), have a history or a current substance abuse, and have been exposed to prior abuse or violence (with a history of abuse reinforcing the normative nature of violence and developing violence-condoning attitude). For example, many immigrant women have to cope with issues regarding their cultural integration into another society while at the same time concurrently feeling related and profoundly bounded by cultures and traditions from their countries of origin. Dependence on one’s partner, difficulties in language proficiency, financial problems, lack of social support, and uncertain legal status can leave these subjects feeling fragile and socially isolated and can prevent them from seeking assistance; besides, women linked to particular cultural backgrounds may refuse to acknowledge certain acts and behaviors as abusive due to beliefs and traditions regarding familial obligations and culturally prescribed gender roles[5].

People with mental illness may have a heightened risk of becoming victims of domestic violence and can be reluctant to disclose abuse. On the other hand, mental ill-health can also be a consequence of victimization and can involve post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, suicidality, and alcohol or substance misuse: Physical sequalae of abuse are added to psychological morbidity[6].

EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN TO PARENTAL DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

It has been outlined by recent research that the presence of intimate partner violence often compromises a child’s attachment to primary caregivers, which results in an additional risk factor for social, emotional, and psychological impairment[7]. A child can be exposed to domestic violence also through the awareness that violence occurs between parents, regardless of whether the child directly witnesses it. Infancy is a critical period of developing a secure attachment, and infants spend most of the time with caregivers, in a relationship of close proximity to them and high and obliged dependence from them; in addition, younger children have not completely strengthened the cognitive ability to discern between intimate partner violence as a threat to caregiver or to the self. As a consequence, the situation of violence in the household can indirectly impact on the child because it compromises the caregiving system in the parent. The presence of intimate partner violence increases a child’s risk of developing a wide variety of negative outcomes (internalizing symptoms, externalizing behaviors, problems with perceptual and cognitive functioning, academic difficulties, interpersonal difficulties). Possible consequences can be affected by the child’s age, relationships with other caregivers, and period of exposure to violence.

Violence against young girls causes physical and psychological effects, which can manifest as mild anxiety symptoms, apprehension, flashbacks, or feeling ashamed or worried to more severe anxiety signs, including a variety of sleep or eating disorders, post-traumatic symptoms, and even thoughts of self-harm and suicide. The inaction of a valid support system may further worsen this complex situation[8].

Children exposed to parental domestic violence are predisposed to physical and mental health disorders and are subjected to an increased risk of become a victim or a perpetrator of intimate partner violence in adolescence and adulthood[9]. Besides, adverse childhood experiences, such as child abuse, maltreatment, substance abuse in the household, incarceration of household members, and emotional or physical neglect, have long-term consequences with poorer physical, mental, individual behavioral, and social/interactional outcomes: The larger the number of adverse childhood experiences, the higher the odds of worst physical and mental health outcomes, including heart disease, stroke, asthma, diabetes, and mental distress[10]. Adolescence is a critical developmental period characterized by puberty, progressive autonomy from parents and family, changes in social relationships, and often the beginning of romantic relationships. Child s*xual abuse, child physical abuse, witnessing parental intimate partner violence, exposure to school-related violence (e.g., bullying), and community violence (e.g., racism or discrimination) during childhood are potentially related to future intimate partner violence. Recently, it has been demonstrated that adverse childhood experiences in adolescence are predictive of interpersonal violence 15 years later[10].

Teen dating violence
When male violence against females occurs within intimate relationships during youth, it is termed adolescent or teen dating violence, occurring in individuals aged 10-24 years, including early, middle, and late adolescence, and described as physical, s*xual, or psychological/emotional abuse, comprising threats, towards a dating partner. Six forms of teen dating violence have been assessed: Threatening behaviors, verbal/emotional abuse, relational abuse, physical abuse, s*xual abuse, and stalking.

The cultivation of emotional relationships during adolescence are pivotal to the progressive growth of interpersonal communication skills, autonomy, and self-perceived competence, but together with affective and behavioral vulnerability experienced during adolescence, a variety of individual, social, and community risk factors may favor the emergence of adolescent dating violence[11]. Victims of teen dating violence may develop adverse health outcomes such as increased s*xual risk behaviors, suicidality, unhealthy behaviors (e.g., lack of physical activity and negative weight-controlling behaviors), inauspicious mental health outcomes, substance use, injuries, victimization, and death. Additionally, it is common for adolescents who experience dating violence to struggle with their academics, drop out of school, or skip school to avoid seeing their partner.

Risk factors for perpetration of adolescent dating violence seem to be a history of experiencing, witnessing, and/or initiating abuse within the home, school, and community; childhood trauma in the form of physical and emotional abuse or neglect (due to personality anxiety traits formed during childhood, so that the individual feels a

Read the full article HERE!: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/...


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Resources for Older Adults

SAMHSA has a number of products for serving older adults with mental and substance use disorders that can be useful to clinicians, other service providers, older adults, and caregivers.

Read the full article HERE!: https://www.samhsa.gov/resources-serving-o...

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#988 offers 24/7 call, text & chat access to trained crisis counselors who can help people experiencing #suicidal, substance use, and/or #mentalhealth crisis, or any other kind of emotional distress.

If you or someone you know is having a mental health crisis, call #988

VISIT: naminj HERE!:


Posted By: agnes levine
Wednesday, May 22nd 2024 at 10:59AM
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